Protocol 7.00 communication flows#

Protocol 7.00 involves an active side and a passive side. At the beginning of the communication, the passive side is usually the calculator, and the active side is the client, e.g. a PC or another calculator.

When a flow isn’t currently in progress, the active side is allowed to send a command to the passive side. This command may start a flow where a “role swap” occurs, i.e. the active side becomes the passive side, and vice versa. At the end of said flow, the role are usually swapped again, so that the original active side becomes the active side again.

When required, the role swap is always initiated by the active side.

The communication schema is the following:

sequenceDiagram Participant active as Original Active Side<br>(PC, ...) Participant passive as Original Passive Side<br>(calculator) Note over active,passive: Initialize the link active->>passive: Command alt Erroneous passive->>active: Error else passive->>active: ACK alt Data transfer is required Note over active,passive: Data transfer else alt Data transfer must be requested by the active side Note over active,passive: Data transfer request end end end Note over active,passive: Terminate the link

The different blocks are described in the following sections.

Note

If any packet is received with an invalid checksum, a specific flow takes place for the sender to be able to understand the situation and resend said packet.

This sub-flow is considered part of the “sending a packet” flow, and must be treated within this logic.

See Reporting invalid checksums for more information.

Note

In between any of the packet sending steps, if the side expected to send a packet takes too long to do so, a sub flow takes place to check if the other side is still present.

See Checking up on the link for more information.

Reporting invalid checksums#

In case a packet has an invalid checksum, it may mean that the packet has been corrupted by the medium lying under the link. In such cases, a specific flow takes place so that the sender of the packet can resend the packet.

An example flow where the active side sends the corrupted packet is the following:

sequenceDiagram Participant active as Active Side Participant passive as Passive Side active->>passive: Command with invalid checksum passive->>active: Error with '01' subtype active->>passive: Same command with valid checksum Note over active,passive: ...

An example flow where the passive side sends the corrupted packet is the following:

sequenceDiagram Participant active as Active Side Participant passive as Passive Side active->>passive: Command passive->>active: ACK with invalid checksum active->>passive: Error with '01' subtype passive->>active: ACK with valid checksum Note over active,passive: ...

Confirming or rejecting overwrite#

Some commands, such as 45 “Transfer file” (storage), may require overwrite confirmation in case the file already exists on the calculator. In such cases, the flow is the following:

sequenceDiagram Participant active as Active Side Participant passive as Passive Side active->>passive: Command with OW set to '00' passive->>active: Overwrite confirmation requested active->>active: Request user confirmation alt User confirms overwrite active->>passive: Confirm overwrite passive->>active: Acknowledge else active->>passive: Deny overwrite passive->>active: Acknowledge end

The packets used in this sequence are the following:

Transferring data#

Say that an active and a passive side have agreed on a data exchange through commands, and have already swapped if necessary. In order to transfer data, the flow is the following:

sequenceDiagram Participant active as Active Side Participant passive as Passive Side loop Data left to transmit active->>passive: Data packet passive->>active: ACK end

Data packets are described in 0x02 – Data packet.

Note

Note that the number of data packets must be known in advance, since all data packets contain both the sequence number and the total sequence count, e.g. “packet 51/128”.

In order to know the number of packets an original buffer can take, due to escaping concerns, it is highly recommended to consider that all packets contain up to 256 bytes, except the last one that may contain less. For example:

  • 500 bytes will be represented as 2 data packets (one of 256 bytes, one of 244 bytes).

  • 512 bytes will be represented as 2 data packets (both of 256 bytes).

  • 1055 bytes will be represented as 5 data packets (four of 256 bytes, one of 31 bytes).

Packet shifting#

Packet shifting is a technique discovered in 2017 that makes data transfers faster. It consists in sending the next data packet before the acknowledgement for the previous one is received.

The flow becomes the following:

sequenceDiagram Participant active as Active Side Participant passive as Passive Side active->>passive: First data packet loop Data left to transmit active->>passive: Send data packet #N passive->>active: ACK for data packet #N - 1 end passive->>active: ACK for last data packet

Warning

This technique comes with its risks, especially the fact that it renders the link non-recoverable in case of bad packet checksum while it is in effect, since the packet correction flow assumes that no “normal” packet is sent after the problematic packet (while we have already sent the packet that comes after in the sequence).

In order to mitigate such risks while still employing the technique, Cahute disables packet shifting on serial links, i.e. only enables it on USB and UMS (SCSI) links.

Requesting data transfer(s)#

When requesting a file or some data generally from the calculator, the usual flow is the following:

sequenceDiagram Participant active as Original Active Side Participant passive as Original Passive Side active->>passive: Command (transfer request) passive->>active: ACK active->>passive: Roleswap Note over active,passive: Active side becomes passive, and vice versa loop Transfer required passive->>active: Command (transfer) active->>passive: ACK Note over active,passive: Data flow from calculator to PC end passive->>active: Roleswap Note over active,passive: Original active side becomes active again

This applies to several use cases, but an example one is the PC requesting a file from the calculator’s flash memory. The transfer request command for such a case is 24 “Request file transfer” (main memory), and the transfer command emitted by the calculator after the roleswap is 25 “Transfer file” (main memory).

Note

The transfer request can lead to multiple commands from the calculator, e.g. with commands such as 29 “Request transfer of all files” (main memory) that will spawn one command and associated data transmission by file in the main memory.

Requesting device information#

While in the “requesting transfer” rationale, the flow to get the device information using command 01 “Get device information” is different from the usual solution applied for this case:

sequenceDiagram Participant active as Active Side Participant passive as Passive Side active->>passive: Command '01' passive->>active: EACK with device information

Note

This is likely to avoid a more complex flow with a roleswap, as described in Requesting data transfer(s), or because the aforementioned flow did not exist when this command was conceived.

Updating serial parameters#

If the link is established on a serial stream, it is possible to negotiate different serial parameters with the calculator dynamically using 02 “Set link settings”, using the following flow:

sequenceDiagram Participant active as Active Side Participant passive as Passive Side active->>passive: Command '02' alt Error has occurred passive->>active: Error else passive->>active: Acknowledge Note over active,passive: Both sides update their<br />serial parameters before<br />their next packet exchanges. end

The only elements that can be updated are the serial speed in bauds, the parity, and the number of stop bits (1 or 2).

The serial speeds are limited to the following speeds (or baud rates): 300, 600, 1200, 2400, 4800, 9600 (by default), 19200, 38400, 57600 and 115200 bauds.

Warning

Depending on the quality of the serial cable (or USB to serial cable / converter), higher speeds may cause more corruption to occur, causing a lot of resends and hence, being less efficient than lower baud rates.